Updates Contents

Clarification on the use of non-random samples and some anecdotal evidence should have been added. They can now be found within the introduction to the sexuality section and the comment on it.

Section 2.7: Bondage/Discipline (B&D) and Sexual Sadomasochism (S&M)

A study based on a convenience sample of 63 women and 83 men with piercings on nipples/genitals—from 29 U.S. states—responding to newspaper- or tabloid-based advertisements soliciting personal information about people with intimate body piercings, has again shown a relative overrepresentation of nonheterosexuals among those with piercings on their nipples/genitals (Table 1).(1)

Table 1 from: Caliendo, C., Armstrong, M. L., & Roberts, A. E. (2005). Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings. J Adv Nurs, 49(5), 474-484.

I also come across two additional references that have noted a notable overrepresentation of homosexual men among those with genital piercings.(2, 3) Such data are consistent with an association between homosexuality and sexual masochism.


  1. C. Caliendo, M. L. Armstrong, A. E. Roberts, J Adv Nurs 49, 474 (Mar, 2005).
  2. R. R. Willcox, Br J Vener Dis 57, 167 (Jun, 1981).
  3. R. B. Hansen, L. H. Olsen, N. C. Langkilde, Scand J Urol Nephrol 32, 219 (May, 1998).

Section 2.8: Homosexuality/Bisexuality and Sexual Interest in Children in Men and Women

This section is now much better organized, and includes an excellent cluster analysis that shows a strong association between nonheterosexuality and sexual interest in children.

Classic studies

Some of the data from three classic studies are reproduced below. Whereas the shortcoming of these studies is that the participants were not drawn from random, population-based samples, the strength of these studies is that they were carried out by homophiles, who attempted to obtain a diverse sample, and some of the authors are(were) likely homosexual or bisexual themselves, i.e., so-called homophobia cannot be blamed for deliberately biasing the sampling so as to result in the unflattering correlates of homosexuality obtained from these studies.

Some of the data refer to the Kinsey Scale, which treats homosexual and heterosexual behaviors or attractions as lying along a continuum, assigning a value of zero for exclusive heterosexuality and a value of 6 for exclusive homosexuality; intermediate values imply varying degrees of bisexual behavior/attraction/orientation, depending on whether the scale is applied to behavior or attraction or orientation.

McWhirter and Mattison on The male couple

D. P. McWhirter, A. M. Mattison, The male couple: how relationships develop (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 1984).

The participants were a non-random, non-clinical sample of 312 men, comprising 156 male-male couples from Southern California, mostly San Diego. The average age was 37.5 years, median age was 36 years, and age range was 20-69 years. About three-fourths had had their first homosexual experience by age 16 years.

The most noteworthy finds from this study are the high incidence of disparate erotic targets in lifetime among the self-identified homosexuals, and the non-exclusivity of their relationships.

47 men had been married at least once, and an additional 51 men had lived with a woman in a relationship that had lasted at least 3 months. 225 men had experienced heterosexual sex and some of the others reported that they would not refuse heterosexual sex if the opportunity arose, although these men had not actively sought a woman for sex.

Table 1. Kinsey scale scores (for the year preceding the interview).

Kinsey Scale value





22 (7.0%)

34 (11.0%)

256 (82.0%)


27 (8.5%)

50 (16.0%)

235 (75.5%)


Table 2. Sexual behavior in the year before the interview.




Fellatio – I



Fellatio – R



Anal sex – I



Anal sex – R



Rimming – I



Rimming - R



Other (sexual sadomasochism, bondage, playing with or drinking urine for sexual pleasure)



Notes: I = insertive, R = receptive.

The authors noted that “many of the values and practices that are cornerstones of heterosexual relationships are absent in male couples.” For instance, only 7 couples in the study “considered themselves to have been consistently sexually monogamous throughout the years of their relationship.” Additionally, the authors pointed out that “Sexual exclusivity is not an ongoing expectation among most male couples.” Such observations have repeatedly been described in the newer literature on HIV infections among homosexual men in the context of the curious observation that HIV infections are more prevalent among male homosexuals in stable relationships than among male homosexuals who have casual sex and lack a stable partner, as mentioned in Section 6.3 of the book.

Bell and Weinberg on Homosexualities

Some data from Bell and Weinberg's study on Homosexualities.

A. Bell, M. Weinberg, Homosexualities: a study of diversities among men and women. (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1978).

The authors recruited 5,000 men and women from multiple sources in San Francisco (the numbers in brackets list those eventually interviewed): public advertising (150), bars (227), personal contacts (241), gay baths (91), homophile organizations (54), mailing lists (94), private bars (57), and public places (61).

Definition of homosexual employed: Kinsey scale score on attractions (range: 0—6) plus behavior (range: 0—6) greater than 4; nearly 90% of the “homosexual” respondents scored 10 or more (except the African-American lesbians’ 77%). Heterosexual controls were recruited so as to match the homosexuals with respect to demographics.

In the tables to the left (click thumbnail), WHM = white homosexual male, BHM = black homosexual male, WHF = white homosexual female, and BHF = black homosexual female. In Table 11 specifically, note that only a minority of male homosexuals avoided a venereal disease from homosexual contacts, whereas almost no woman got a venereal disease from homosexual contacts.

Saghir and Robins on a comprehensive examination of male and female homosexuality

M. T. Saghir, E. Robins, Male and female homosexuality: a comprehensive investigation (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1973).

The homosexuals were obtained from homophile groups in Chicago and San Francisco: 104 men, 61 women; 15 men and 4 women were eliminated from further analysis because they did not fulfill the criteria for the research, and all of these individuals had experienced psychiatric hospitalization. Controls: single, age-, SES-, and religion-matched heterosexuals from a 500-unit apartment complex in St. Louis County, which rented to mostly financially well-off individuals; participation was solicited from 62 men and 55 women, and the final sample size was 40 men and 44 women.

Homosexual men: mean age = 35 y, median age = 32.70 y, range = 19-70 y.

Heterosexual men: mean age = 30 y, median age = 28 y, range = 21-50 y.

Homosexual women: mean age = 31 y, range = 20-54 y.

Heterosexual women: mean age = 29 y, range = 21-50 y.

Homosexuals were defined as those that self-identify as such and report a history of repeatedly engaging in overt homosexual behavior since age 18 years. Heterosexuals were defined as those that self-identify as such and report a history of repeatedly engaging in overt and exclusively heterosexual behaviors since age 18 years and experiencing attraction to opposite-sex individuals only since age 18 years. As is usual in research on homosexuals, given the rarity of lifetime-exclusive homosexuals, one normally relies upon self-identification for classification purposes and/or classifies those scoring 5 and sometimes also 4 on the Kinsey scale as homosexual. This does not necessarily present problems because it is now clear that homosexuals, bisexuals, and self-identified heterosexuals with some same-sex attraction or homosexual behaviors belong to the same taxon. To be symmetric, researchers usually classify those scoring 1 on the Kinsey scale as heterosexual, but this is mistaken as the taxometric and other criteria imply. The heterosexual controls of Saghir and Robins are self-identified heterosexuals, some of whom are not lifetime-exclusive heterosexuals, as will be described soon.

Some data from Saghir and Robins' study on male and female homosexuals.

29% of homosexual men and none of the controls reported participating in orgies; among the homosexual men reporting having participated in orgies, 40% had done it 4 times or less, 16% had done it 5-8 times, and 44% had done it 9 times or more.

The prevalence of “true sadomasochistic tendencies,” defined by the authors as “lifelong emotional gratification and sexual arousal from pain involving their bodies” was not significantly different between homosexual men (1 person; 1% of the sample) and heterosexual men (1 person; 3% of the sample), but 6% of homosexual men periodically engaged in sadomasochistic behaviors in adulthood.

In the tables to the left (click thumbnail), Tables 6.6 and 6.7 depict heterosexual intercourse on the part of homosexual and heterosexual men and the sexual intercourse mentioned in Tables 13.6 and 13.7 is heterosexual intercourse.